Every year lakhs of Indians are afflicted by kidney failure. A vast majority of these patients continue to die of the problem due to lack of access to tertiary care or an inability to afford it. Patients suffering from kidney failure require surgical care at every step. Most patients will undergo vascular access surgery called AV Fistula or arteriovenous fistula. This forms the cornerstone of dialysis treatment and enables easy dialysis. Patients who opt for peritoneal dialysis can have a CAPD catheter placed for longterm home dialysis. But the best option for treatment remains kidney transplantation. Transplantation surgery is now a very successful procedure.