Urological cancers are an important cause of cancers. In men, prostate cancer is the commonest cancer. Other urological cancers are bladder cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer and adrenal tumors. Prostate cancer can be diagnosed early by a combination of a physical examination and blood test (the PSA or prostate specific antigen). Kidney cancers are often identified early on imaging of the abdomen done for reasons such as a health screening. Bladder tumors herald themselves by bleeding in the urine. Most of these conditions can be treated effectively with excellent long term cure provided they are diagnosed in time.
Adrenal tumors may present because of the hormones that they produce, or more commonly, they get identified incidentally on imaging done for some other reason (the so-called incidentallomas). There is no secure method of distinguishing a benign (non-cancerous) tumor from a cancer and the most widely accepted indication for surgery is an incidental mass that is more than 5cm in size. Functioning tumors (tumors that produce abnormal amounts of hormones) may require removal even if they are smaller. Adrenal tumors can be removed by conventional open surgery. More recently, adrenal tumors are being operated laparoscopically with much less morbidity and with rapid recovery and discharge from hospital.